Table 1—

Potential mechanisms of cachexia

Energy imbalance
 Increased work of breathing
 Inefficient metabolism (fibre type conversion to type II)
 Anorexia
Disuse atrophy of muscles
Hypoxaemia
Systemic inflammation
 Tumour necrosis factor-α
 Interleukin-1β and -6
 C-reactive protein
 Reactive oxygen species
Hormonal insufficiency
 Growth hormone
 Testosterone
 Insulin-like growth factor
 Leptin
Sympathetic activation (pro-inflammatory)
Accelerated ageing