Table 2—

Environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with habitual snoring in the previous 12 months#

Base modelPartially adjusted model I+Fully adjusted model§
OR (95% CI)p-valueƒOR (95% CI)p-valueƒOR 95% CIp-valueƒ
Environmental factors
 Parental smoking
  One parent versus none1.66 (1.34–2.06)1.46 (1.17–1.83)1.43 (1.13–1.82)
  Both parents versus none2.43 (1.82–3.25)<0.0012.09 (1.53–2.84)<0.0012.06 (1.48–2.87)<0.001
 Exposure to road traffic1.38 (1.14–1.68)0.0011.23 (1.00–1.50)0.048
 No electric cooking1.22 (0.99–1.50)0.065
 No central heating1.50 (1.09–2.05)0.012
 Breast feeding > 6 months0.73 (0.57–0.95)0.019
Socioeconomic factors
 Single parent1.97 (1.46–2.66)<0.0011.60 (1.16–2.22)0.0041.41 (0.99–2.00)0.058
 Poor maternal education##1.29 (1.07–1.56)0.009
 Poor paternal education##1.39 (1.13–1.70)0.002
 Townsend score tertiles
Whites
 Medium deprivation versus low1.38 (1.07–1.79)1.25 (0.96–1.62)1.29 (0.98–1.71)
 High deprivation versus low2.78 (2.11–3.66)<0.0012.03 (1.51–2.73)<0.0011.69 (1.23–2.33)0.005
South Asians
 Medium deprivation versus low0.94 (0.52–1.71)0.87 (0.48–1.58)1.01 (0.54–1.89)
 High deprivation versus low0.86 (0.49–1.50)0.8380.73 (0.42–1.29)0.5020.92 (0.51–1.65)0.907
  • OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. #: n = 3,245; : adjusted for age, sex and ethnic group; +: adjusted for age, sex, ethnic group and all environmental and socioeconomic factors; §: adjusted for age, sex, ethnic group and all environmental and socioeconomic factors and clinical features simultaneously; ƒ: refer to Wald test for the whole variable included in the model; ##: completed full-time education aged ≤16 yrs.