Table 9—

Summary of various chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) outcomes from mortality, social and economic burden, computed tomography (CT) imaging, nonpulmonary markers of disease and biomarkers

Outcome measureMortalitySocial and economic burdenCT imagingNonpulmonary markers of diseaseBiomarkers# (many outcome measures)
BMI, FFMIQMF–CD
IsometricIsokineticFemoral nerve mag. stim.
Standardisation of methodologyYesNAnaYesNoNoNona
Statistical frequency distribution
 In the general populationYesNAnaYesNoYesNona
 In COPD patientsYesNAnaYesNoNoNona
ReproducibilityYesNAnaYesYesnanana
Relationship with health outcomes
 In the general populationYesNAnaYesNANANAna
 In COPD patientsYesNAnaYesYesNonana
Sensitivity to treatment effectYesNAnaYesYesYesYesna
Utility in COPD exacerbationsPossibleNAnaYesYesPossiblePossiblena
Influence on comorbiditiesNANAnaYesNoNoNona
Utility in multicentre trialsYesNAnaYesYesYesYesna
Measurement requirements
 QuestionnaireNoNANoNoNoNoNona
 EquipmentNoNAYesYesYesYesYesna
 Time-consumingnaNAYes5 min10 minnanana
 TrainingNoNAYesYesYesYesYesna
Measurement costnaNAYesMinimal\#8364;100000\#8364;100000\#8364;25000na
Safety issuesNANAYesNoYesYesYesna
Ethical issuesNANAYesNoNoNoNona
  • BMI: body mass index; FFMI: fat-free mass index; QMF: quadriceps muscle function; CD: computerised dynamometer; mag. stim.: magnetic stimulation; na: not available; NA: not applicable. #: there are many suggested biomarkers in the medical literature; however, they are often obtained from studies with small sample sizes and/or not replicated by other independent research groups.