Table 3—

Calcitonin(CT) peptides, as hormokines, are a functional entity

 RAMP(2)#11 or 32 or 3
 Second messengercAMP, Ca2+NO?NO, NF-κB
Metabolic effects
 Insulin resistance++
 Effect on β-cells±+++
 Gastric protection+++
 Effects on calcium/bone++±+±
Inflammatory effects
 Increase plasma in infectionsPCT+With insulin+
 Toxic in sepsisPCT+?+?
 Chrono- and ionotropic+++++
Host defence
 Bactericidal activity?++
  • Data represent predominantly experimental results obtained in vitro or in animals (mostly rodents) using supra-physiological dosages. The 114-amino acid form of human procalcitonin (PCT), circulating in high levels during sepsis, is not yet available for experimental purposes. +: positive effect; –: negative effect; ±: mixed effect; +?: questionable positive effect; ?: questionable effect; ++: clear positive effect; ++++: powerful effect. CGRP: CT gene-related peptide; ADM: adrenomedullin; CR: CT receptors; CRLR: CT receptor-like receptors; RAMP: receptor activity-modifying protein; Ca2+: calcium homeostasis NF: nuclear factor. #: not on absolute prerequisite for function of the colcitonin receptor. Compiled and adapted from 2.