Table 4—

Model fitting results of genetic analyses#

AsthmaEczemaRhinitis
Full modelACEADEADE
Single trait analyses
 ΔChi-squared value
  Sex differences1.3860.4080.905
  Drop C (D)+,§018.627ƒ0
Parameter estimates % (95% CI)
 A291 (82–93)35 (13–57)95 (78–97)
 D249 (26–72 )
 E29 (6–13)16 (13–20)5 (3–8)
Bivariate trait analyses
 Asthma and eczema
  rg0.55
  re0.18
 Asthma and rhinitis
  rg0.47
  re0.73
 Eczema and rhinitis
  rg0.62
  re0.38
Phenotypic correlation explained by genetic and environmental factors %
 Genetic828896
 Environmental18124
  • #: the genetic model includes additive genetic factors (A), common environment (C), genetic dominance (D) and unique environmental (E) influences on liability to asthma, eczema and rhinitis. CI: confidence interval; a2, d2 and e2: estimates giving the percentages of variance explained by additive genetic, dominant genetic and unique environmental influences; rg and re: parameter estimates giving the genetic and environmental correlation between two traits. : Δ degrees of freedom (d.f.) = 2; +: Δd.f. = 1; +: the AE model omits C or D from the model (if the increase in Chi-squared value is significant, this indicates the significance of this parameter); ƒ: significant increase in Chi-squared value.