Table 2—

Summary of evidence regarding lipid-laden macrophage index (LLMI)

First author [Ref.]Comparison groupsSubjects nLLMI
Colombo 44Respiratory symptoms without choking2321±20 (0–72)
Respiratory symptoms with choking22139±46 (86–241)
Bauer 45Not chronic pulmonary aspiration6243±42 (0–170)
Chronic pulmonary aspiration#22112±63 (20–233)
Knauer-Fischer 46Surgical controls1860.2±23.6 (35–106)
Lung disease¶,+18119.6±28.8 (74–178)
Kazachkov 47Healthy adult controls81.0±0.4
Non-CF, uninfected GOR and/or aspiration suspected clinically2119.2±4.5
CF, uninfected246.9±3.5
Moran 52Lactose assay negative46121±29
Lactose assay positive18204±48
Ahrens 53Surgical controls206.7+ (1–21)
Lung disease control§144.8+ (1–14)
Pulmonary symptoms and GORƒ3224.3+ (1–106)
Sacco 54Respiratory symptoms, pH negative912+ (3–50)
Respiratory symptoms, pH positive1152+ (5–105)
  • Data are presented as mean±sd (range) or mean (range). CF: cystic fibrosis; GOR: gastro-oesophageal reflux. #: Classified based on variable combinations of positive upper gastrointestinal series, modified barium swallow and gastro-oesophageal scintigraphy and then “confirmed” by telephone follow-up documenting improvement after intervention; : 12 out of 18 subjects with pneumonia during antileukemic therapy; +: median values; §: all with normal pH monitoring and barium oesophagram; ƒ: GOR confirmed in all by pH monitoring, barium oesophagram, and/or oesophageal biopsy.