Table 2—

Results from semiquantitative scoring of immunohistochemistry sections

CellsCOPD versus controlTGF-β1TGF-β R1TGF-β R2Smad 2Smad 3Smad 4Smad 7
Epi cells airwaysStage II
Stage IV
Stroma cellsStage II
Stage IV
Type-2 cellsStage II
Stage IV
  • COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; TGF: transforming growth factor; epi: epithelial; Stage II: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II COPD; Stage IV: GOLD stage IV COPD. ▾: indicates a significantly lower expression in the stage II or stage IV group compared with the control group. No significant upregulations were observed.