Table 3—

Early stage cancer in the central airways treated with curative intent using various intraluminal bronchoscopic treatment methods

First author [Ref.]MethodsPatients n (lesions n)ResponseSurvival months
Cortese 8PDT (Photofrin II®)21 (23 resectable)Nine patients (43%) spared from surgery>24
Hayata 16PDT (HpD)(123)CR 93% if <1 cm<60
CR 45% if >1 cm
Grosjean 80PDT (m-THPC)12CR 13/16 (81%)3–38
Awadh 81PDT (5-ALA)6CR 5/6 (83%)NA
Kato 83PDT (NPe-6)35 (39)CR 83% (84.6%)NA
Marsiglia 84HDR brachytherapy34Local control 85%Median 24
Survival 78%
Deygas 82Cryotherapy35CR 32/35 (91%)20% failure >48
van Boxem 17Electrocautery13 (15)CR 80%, 10 patients, 12 lesions16–43
Vonk Noordegraaf 32Electrocautery32CR 31/32 (97%)Median 60 (24–120)
  • PDT: photodynamic therapy; HpD: haematoporphyrin derivative; CR: complete response (radiographically occult cancers with negative histology/cytology at follow-up and normal radiological examinations); m-THPC: meta-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin; ALA: 5-aminolevulinic acid; NA: not available; NPe-6: mono-L-aspartyl chlorine 6; HDR: high dose rate.