Table 5—

Survival multivariate analysis in selected groups

VariablesHR (95% CI)p-value#
ICU
 Antibiotics
  β-Lactams+macrolides1
  β-Lactams0.45 (0.18–1.22)0.116
  Macrolides00.984
  Levofloxacin0.73 (0.1–5.6)0.7620.082
  Other combinations1.84 (0.9–3.6)0.074
 Shock3.7 (1.5–8.8)0.004
 Renal failure3.2 (1.5–7)0.003
 Typical symptoms2.3 (1.1–5.2)0.038
PSI Class >III+
 Antibiotics
  β-Lactams+macrolides10.187
  β-Lactams1.49 (0.8–2.7)0.9670.039
  Macrolides00.162
  Levofloxacin0.36 (0.08–1.5)0.013
  Other combinations2 (1.2–3.4)
 Bilateral pneumonia2.28 (1.4–3.7 )0.001
 Shock6.5 (4.1–10.3)<0.001
 HIV infection2.24 (1.2–4.2)0.014
Renal failure§
 Antibiotics
  β-Lactams+macrolides1
  β-Lactams0.51 (0.2–1.2)0.136
  Macrolides1.9 (0.2–14.8)0.537
  Levofloxacin0.3 (0.04–2.4)0.2450.094
  Other combinations1.5 (0.8–2.9)0.249
 Bilateral pneumonia2.3 (1.2–4.5)0.015
 Shock6 (2.7–13.1)<0.001
 Penicillin susceptibility
  Sensitive1
  Intermediate2.9 (1.4–6)0.004
  Resistant2.9 (1.2–7.3)0.0230.006
  Typical symptoms2.7 (1.2–6.1)0.014
Chronic lung diseaseƒ
 Antibiotics
  β-Lactams+macrolides1
  β-Lactams0.6 (0.3–1.5)0.323
  Macrolides00.986
  Levofloxacin00.9610.771
  Other combinations1.2 (0.5–3.2)0.711
 Shock7.6 (3.5–16.3)<0.001
Bacteraemia##
 Antibiotics
  β-Lactams+macrolides1
  β-Lactams1.2 (0.6–2.4)0.576
  Macrolides0.8 (0.1–6.5)0.867
  Levofloxacin0.3 (0.04–2.5)0.2750.226
  Other combinations1.8 (1–3.4)0.053
 Bilateral pneumonia2.2 (1.3–3.9)0.005
 PSI score
  I+II+III1
  IV3.4 (1.3–8.6)0.010
  V5.6 (2.3–13.8)<0.0010.001
 Shock7.7 (4.3–13.9)<0.001
 Typical symptoms2.4 (1.3–4.3)0.004
  • HR: hazard ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; PSI: pneumonia severity index. For the full definition of each variable refer to table 2. #: For those variables with several categories the first column of p-values compares every category of the variable to the reference category. The second column shows the significance of the variable as a whole. : n = 125; +: n = 381; §: n = 127; ƒ: n = 254; ##: n = 429; HR p-values were calculated by Cox regression models; for further explanations see Methods section.