Table 1—

Diagnostic procedures used in pneumococcal pneumonia

Diagnostic procedureProcedures undertakenPositive finding
Sputum316 (49.5)181 (28.4)
Bronchial aspirate108 (16.9)70 (11)
Blood culture583 (91.4)427 (67)
Pleural fluid culture79 (12.4)32 (5)
Protected brush catheter20 (3.1)14 (2.2)
BAL19 (3)8 (1.3)
Transthoracic punction2 (0.3)2 (0.3)
Open lung biopsy
Autopsy2 (0.3)
Pneumococcal urinary antigen68 (10.7)17 (2.7)
Legionella spp. urinary antigen160 (25.1)1 (0.2)
Mycoplasma spp. IgM109 (17.1)
  • All data are presented as n (%). A definite diagnosis of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia was achieved in 73% of procedures and a diagnosis of probable pneumococcal pneumonia was recorded in the remaining 27%. BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; IgM: immunoglobulin M.