Table 5—

Multiple linear regression analyses for individual socio-economic status (SES) variables and health status

Individual SES variablesHealth status measures#
SF-12 PCSSeverity of asthma score+FEV1 % pred§Asthma QoLƒ
β±sep-valueβ±sep-valueβ±sep-valueβ±sep-value
Education
 High school graduate or less (referent)
 Some college, associate degree or trade school−0.7±1.50.641.4±0.80.07−0.3±3.90.94−2.0±2.20.37
 College graduate2.0±1.60.22−1.3±0.80.145.1±4.20.22−7.3±2.40.002
 Graduate school or more1.6±1.90.41−0.2±1.00.854.1±5.00.42−5.2±2.80.07
Annual income US$
 <40000 (referent)
 40000–60000−0.2±1.70.910.4±0.90.68−6.5±4.40.13−1.6±2.40.52
 60000–80000−0.8±1.60.620.7±0.80.38−3.4±4.10.40−0.7±2.40.77
 80000–1000000.2±1.70.891.6±0.90.080.0±4.30.992.4±2.50.35
 >1000000.3±1.60.870.8±0.80.35−3.7±4.00.35−1.6±2.40.52
Employment status
 Manufacturing/construction/agricultural (referent)
 Managerial (referent)0.0±2.10.99−0.8±1.10.475.1±5.50.352.8±3.00.35
 Technical/service1.3±2.50.610.3±1.30.8112.0±6.10.050.8±3.50.83
 Clerical/sales−1.0±2.10.63−1.2±1.10.294.4±5.60.442.9±3.00.33
 Not working, health reasons−17.8±2.6<0.00015.7±1.4<0.0001−1.4±6.40.8323.0±3.6<0.0001
 Not working, other reasons−1.0±2.30.67−0.7±1.20.548.3±5.80.165.4±3.20.09
  • SF-12 PCS: Short Form-12 Physical Component Scale; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; % pred: % predicted; QoL: quality of life; #: overall model p-value for FEV1 p = 0.23, all other models p<0.0001; : n = 404, model R2 = 0.20; +: n = 404, model R2 = 0.13; §: n = 218, model R2 = 0.02; ƒ: n = 340, model R2 = 0.21.