Table 1—

Patient characteristics at baseline

TiotropiumPlacebo
Subjects n500510
Males %8987
Age yrs64.5±9.165.0±9.5
Duration of COPD yrs8.2±7.88.5±7.7
Current smokers %2724
Baseline spirometry
 PEF L·min−1261.5±96.1257.7±96.0
 FEV1 L1.38±0.451.36±0.44
 FEV1 % pred48.2±12.847.6±12.5
 FVC L2.57±0.752.54±0.77
 FEV1/FVC0.55±0.120.54±0.12
 SVC L2.84±0.782.82±0.85
Exacerbations in last year2.16±1.432.12±1.36
Hospitalisations due to exacerbation in last year0.18±0.450.21±0.50
Pre-study medication for COPD %
 Any pulmonary medication97.096.9
 Short-acting anticholinergics36.040.0
 β2-Agonist, oral5.04.3
 Short-acting β2-agonist, inhaled93.493.5
 Long-acting β2-agonist, inhaled31.032.5
 Leukotriene receptor antagonist0.80.8
 Oxygen3.03.3
 ICS65.061.6
 Steroids, oral2.42.0
 Steroids, IV/IM0.00.6
 Xanthines6.07.5
  • Data are expressed as mean±sd unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PEF: peak expiratory flow; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; % pred: percentage of predicted value; FVC: forced vital capacity; SVC: slow vital capacity; ICS: inhaled corticosteroids; IV/IM: intravenous/intramuscular.