Table. 11—

Summary of the issues concerning central or upper airway obstruction

Special attention should be paid by the technicians to obtain maximal and repeatable PEFs and forced inspiratory manoeuvres if there is a clinical or spirometric reason to suspect upper airway obstruction
Be aware of how to distinguish intrathoracic from extrathoracic airway obstruction (table 10)
Confirm the presence of central and upper airway obstruction with imaging and/or endoscopic techniques
  • PEF: peak expiratory flow.