Table 2—

Comparison of the costs published on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in different countries

First author [ref.]CountryFocusCostsCost·patient−1·yr−1Global cost·yr−1
Morera 52SpainTop-downDirect and indirect\#8364;959Direct \#8364;319 million
Indirect \#8364;541 million
Hilleman 57USABottom-upDirectStage I US$1681
Stage II US$5037
Stage III US$10812
Jacobson 59SwedenTop-downDirect and indirectDirect \#8364;109 million
Indirect \#8364;541 million
Wilson 60USA.Top-downDirectEmphysema US$1341US$14500 million
Chronic bronchitis US$816
Rutten van Mölken 56The NetherlandsTop-downDirectUS$876
Dal Negro 61ItalyBottom-upDirectStage I \#8364;151
Stage II \#8364;3001
Stage III \#8364;3912
Jansson 54SwedenBottom-upDirect and indirectUS$1284US$871
Miravitlles 55SpainBottom-upDirectStage I \#8364;1185\#8364;427 million
Stage II \#8364;1640
Stage III \#8364;2333
Masa 58SpainBottom-upDirect\#8364;909.5\#8364;238.8 million
Cross-sectional