Table. 1—

List of abbreviations and meanings

ATPDAmbient temperature, ambient pressure, and dry
ATPSAmbient temperature and pressure saturated with water vapour
BTPSBody temperature (i.e. 37°C), ambient pressure, saturated with water vapour
CCentigrade
CFCChlorofluorocarbons
cmCentimetres
COHbCarboxyhaemoglobin
DL,CODiffusing capacity for the lungs measured using carbon monoxide, also known as transfer factor
DL,CO/VADiffusing capacity for carbon monoxide per unit of alveolar volume, also known as KCO
DMMembrane-diffusing capacity
DTDwell time of flow >90% of PEF
EFLExpiratory flow limitation
ERVExpiratory reserve volume
EVBack extrapolated volume
EVCExpiratory vital capacity
FA,XFraction of gas X in the alveolar gas
FA,X,tAlveolar fraction of gas X at time t
FEF25–75%Mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC
FEFX%Instantaneous forced expiratory flow when X% of the FVC has been expired
FEV1Forced expiratory volume in one second
FEVtForced expiratory volume in t seconds
FE,XFraction of expired gas X
FIFX%Instantaneous forced inspiratory flow at the point where X% of the FVC has been inspired
FI,XFraction of inspired gas X
FIVCForced inspiratory vital capacity
FRCFunctional residual capacity
FVCForced vital capacity
H2OWater
HbHaemoglobin
HgMercury
HzHertz; cycles per second
ICInspiratory capacity
IRVInspiratory reserve volume
IVCInspiratory vital capacity
KCOTransfer coefficient of the lung (i.e. DL,CO/VA)
kgKilograms
kPaKilopascals
LLitres
L·min−1Litres per minute
L·s−1Litres per second
lbPounds weight
MEFX%Maximal instantaneous forced expiratory flow where X% of the FVC remains to be expired
MFVLMaximum flow–volume loop
mgMilligrams
MIFMaximal inspiratory flow
mLMillilitres
mmMillimetres
MMEFMaximum mid-expiratory flow
msMilliseconds
MVVMaximum voluntary ventilation
PA,O2Alveolar oxygen partial pressure
PBBarometric pressure
PEFPeak expiratory flow
PH2OWater vapour partial pressure
PI,O2Inspired oxygen partial pressure
θ (theta)Specific uptake of CO by the blood
RTRise time from 10% to 90% of PEF
RVResidual volume
sSeconds
STPDStandard temperature (273 K, 0°C), pressure (101.3 kPa, 760 mmHg) and dry
TBTuberculosis
TGV (or VTG)Thoracic gas volume
tITime taken for inspiration
TLCTotal lung capacity
TrTracer gas
ttotTotal time of respiratory cycle
TV (or VT)Tidal volume
VAAlveolar volume
VA,effEffective alveolar volume
VCVital capacity
VcPulmonary capillary blood volume
VDDead space volume
VIInspired volume
VSVolume of the expired sample gas
µgMicrograms