Table. 3—

Comparison of all-cause emergency room (ER) visits between study groups in the year preceding enrolment and for 2 yrs' follow-up

Preceding yearStudy year2nd yr follow-up
Self-managementStandard careSelf-managementStandard careSelf-managementStandard care
ER visits n256268211317217255
Patient-yrs969593.989.786.279.9
ER visits·patient-yr−12.72.82.23.52.53.2
Reduction in ER visits·patient-yr−1#−0.1 (−0.21–0.02)−1.3 (−1.18– −1.42)−0.7 (−0.58– −0.82)
Treatment difference %−5.5−36.5−21.1
  • #: reduction in the rate of all-cause ER visits in the self-management group as compared to the standard-care group (95% confidence interval); : differences were calculated by dividing the absolute difference between groups by the standard-care group value.