Table. 1—

Summary of time series studies relating fine and coarse particulate matter to mortality

ReferenceLocationApproximate number of eventsMeasurement of PM102.5R fine–coarseEffect estimates per 10 μg·m−3Estimates from two-pollutant model
3, 4Six USA cities190000Direct0.23–0.69FP: 1.5 (1.1–1.9)NA
CP: 0.4 (−0.1–1.0)
7Santiago, Chile186000Direct0.52FP: 0.7 (0.5–0.9)FP: 0.7 (0.4–1.0)
CP: 0.9 (0.6–1.3)CP: 0.1 (−0.3–0.5)
8Philadelphia, USA135000DirectNAFP: mostly significantNA
CP: mostly insignificant
9, 10Eight Canadian cities110000Direct0.37FP: 1.4 (0.5–2.3)FP effect remains significant, CP effect no longer
CP: 0.8 (0.0–1.6)
11, 12Santa Clara County, USA60000Direct0.51FP: 2.9 (0.6–5.3)FP 3.5 (0.7–6.6)
CP: 1.3 (−2.2–4.9)CP −2.4 (−9.0–4.8)
13West Midlands, UK49000Direct0.34FP: 0.3 (−0.8–1.5)NA
CP: −0.5 (−3.8–2.0)
14Mexico City30100Indirect0.52FP: 1.5 (−0.0–3.0)FP: 0.2 (−1.7–2.1)
CP: 4.1 (2.5–5.7)CP: 4.0 (2.0–6.0)
15Vancouver, Canada28200?0.46Total: FP: −0.1 (−4.6–4.6)NA
CP: 0.9 (−1.7–3.6)
CVD: FP: 4.8 (−1.9–11.9)
CP: 5.4 (1.0–9.8)
Resp: FP: 7.4 (−4.1–20.3)
CP: −1.4 (−8.5–6.5)
16, 17Detroit/Michigan County, USA25000Direct0.42FP: 0.8 (−0.6–2.4)NA
CP: 1.1 (−0.9–3.3)
18, 19Coachella Valley, USA21000Indirect0.28–0.46Total: FP: 4.4 (0.0–8.9)NA
CP: 0.5 (−0.5–1.0)
CVD:FP: 3.3 (−2.2–10.0)
CP: 1.0 (0.5–2.0)
20Atlanta, USA8400?FP: 1.9 (−1.3–5.4)NA
CP: 0.6 (−4.5–6.4)
21, 22Phoenix, USA4200Indirect0.59FP: 3.5 (−0.1–9.4)NA
CP: 2.7 (0.5–6.0)
  • R: Pearson correlation coefficient; PM10: particles <10 μm in diameter; PM2.5: particles <2.5 μm in diameter; FP: fine particles; CP: coarse particles; CVD: cardiovascular disease; Resp: respiratory; NA: not available.