Table. 2—

Matched crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to the use of inhaled corticosteroids during the 1­yr period before index date#

CaseControlsCrude RRAdjusted RR+
Subjects n3711864
Exposure in the last 12 months
 None214 (57.7)1000 (54.3)1 (ref. group)1 (ref. group)
 Any use157 (42.3)864 (45.7)0.86 (0.68–1.09)0.83 (0.63–1.08)
  Current exposure#71 (19.1)359 (18.7)0.95 (0.70–1.28)0.82 (0.57–1.16)
  Past exposure#86 (23.2)505 (27.1)0.80 (0.60–1.06)0.83 (0.61–1.14)
  • Data are presented as n (%) or RR (95% confidence interval), unless otherwise stated. ref.: reference. #: the index date for case subjects and matched controls was the date of the case subject AMI; : to account for the variable number of controls in each matched set, all means, sd and percentages were weighted by the inverse of the number of controls in each set; +: adjusted for age and duration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; by study design), and for sex, number of COPD exacerbations, number of prescriptions of bronchodilators in the last 12 months (none, 1–12, >12), oral corticosteroid dose dispensed in the last 12 months, hospitalisation in the last 3 months, diabetes, systemic hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and heart failure.