Table 5—

Hazard ratios (HR) for onset of asthma in 1989–2001 in relation to sex, respiratory symptoms and allergic rhinitis at start of follow-up

Baseline predictorAll subjectsSubjects with wheezing excludedSubjects with wheezing or nocturnal dyspnoea excludedSubjects with wheezing, nocturnal dyspnoea, chest tightness and cough excluded
Females1.9 (1.5–2.4)1.8 (1.3–2.5)1.9 (1.4–2.6)1.8 (1.4–2.6)
Wheezing2.1 (1.6–2.7)
Nocturnal dyspnoea1.4 (0.8–2.4)2.7 (1.4–5.3)
Nocturnal chest tightness1.3 (0.9–1.9)1.4 (0.8–2.4)1.1 (0.6–2.0)
Nocturnal cough1.4 (1.1–1.8)1.4 (1.01–1.9)1.4 (0.99–1.97)
Allergic rhinitis2.3 (1.8–3.0)2.7 (2.0–3.6)3.0 (2.2–4.0)2.9 (2.1–3.9)
  • Data are presented as HR (95% confidence interval (CI)). Based on a Cox regression model adjusted for centre, smoking, age and sex, with simultaneous inclusion of all predictors