Table. 1—

Historical cohort studies examining the effect of maternal asthma on pregnancy outcomes

Author yr [ref]Population study yrsAsthma definitionSample sizeICS usePoor outcomes associated with asthmaPoor outcomes not associated with asthma
Gordon et al., 1970 9USAActively treated asthma30861 (all) 277 (asthma)Prior to ICSPerinatal death (severe asthma)Low birth weight
Bahna and Bjerkedal, 1972 10Norway 1967–1968Mother's health documented by midwife or physician in birth registry112530 (control) 381 (asthma)Prior to ICSPre-term delivery, low birth weight, hyperemesis, haemorrhage, toxemia, induced/complicated labour, neonatal mortality
Lao and Huengsburg, 1990 11Hong Kong 1984–1987History of asthma87 (control) 87 (asthma)11% used beclomethasoneLow birth weight (mothers not receiving treatment for asthma), C-section (mothers using bronchodilators)
Perlow et al., 1992 12USA 1985–1990Asthma diagnosis reported in perinatal database130 (control) 81 (asthma)UnclearC-section for foetal distress, pre-term labour and delivery, pre-term premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes (steroid-dependent asthma), low birth weight (steroid-dependent asthma)Pre-eclampsia, chronic hypertension, congenital malformations, IUGR
Lehrer et al., 1993 13USA 1987–1991Asthma history or asthma requiring treatment22680 (control) 1435 (asthma history), 136 (asthma with treatment)136 used ICSPregnancy-induced hypertension
Demissie et al., 1998 14USA 1989–1992Asthma diagnosis recorded in database9156 (control) 2289 (asthma)UnknownPregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, low birth weight, pre-term delivery, congenital malformationsPost-partum haemorrhage
Alexander et al., 1998 1Canada 1991–1993Completed on prenatal records or maternal admission forms13709 (control) 817 (asthma)UnclearAntepartum and post-partum haemorrhageC-section, gestational diabetes, pre-term delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension
Kallen et al., 2000 15Sweden 1984–1995Recorded by midwife36985 (all pregnant females) 15512 (asthma)UnknownPre-term delivery, low birth weight, post-term birth, infant deathCongenital malformations
Wen et al., 2001 16Canada 1989–1996Diagnosis recorded in database34688 (control) 8672 (asthma)UnknownPre-term labour, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum and post-partum haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, C-sectionFoetal death
Liu et al., 2001 17Canada 1991–1996Diagnosis recorded in database8772 (control) 2193 (asthma)UnknownSmall for gestational age, pregnancy-induced hypertension, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, pre-term deliveryCongenital malformations
Olesen et al., 2001 18Denmark 1991–1996Primiparae females with diagnosis of asthma and purchase of prescription drugs for asthma8717 (control) 303 (asthma)22.5% used ICSSmall for gestational age (theophylline users), reduced birth weight and length (mothers who reduced intensity of drug treatment during pregnancy)Congenital malformations
Norjavaara and de Verdier, 2003 19Sweden 1995–1998Self-report293948 (all) 2968 (asthma)All used budesonideC-sectionStill birth, congenital malformations, reduced birth weight, reduced gestational length
  • ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; C-section: caesarean section; IUGR: intrauterine growth restriction.