Table 5—

Independent and joint effects of sex and cigarette smoking on the risk of asthma, The Finnish Environment and Asthma Study 1997–2000

Adjusted# OR (95% CI)Risk increase %
Male and never-smoking1.00
Female and never-smoking1.57 (1.09–2.27)57
Male and current smoking1.04 (0.66–1.65)4
Male and ex-smoking1.34 (0.86–2.09)34
Female and current smoking2.43 (1.56–3.79)143
Female and ex-smoking2.38 (1.51–3.76)138
  • OR: odds ratio

  • CI: confidence interval

  • #: adjusted for age, parental atopy, education, environmental tobacco smoke at home or at work, dampness and mould problems at home or at work, self-reported occupational exposures and pets

  • : reference category