Table 4—

Independent and joint effects of parental atopy and cigarette smoking on the risk of asthma, The Finnish Environment and Asthma Study 1997–2000

Adjusted# OR (95% CI)Risk increase %
No parental atopy and never-smoking1.00
Parental atopy and never-smoking2.15 (1.52–3.06)115
No parental atopy and current smoking1.43 (1.02–1.99)43
No parental atopy and ex-smoking1.60 (1.14–2.24)60
Parental atopy and current smoking2.43 (1.52–3.90)143
Parental atopy and ex-smoking2.70 (1.70–4.27)170
  • OR: odds ratio

  • CI: confidence interval

  • #: adjusted for sex, age, education, environmental tobacco smoke at home or at work, dampness and mould problems at home or at work, self-reported occupational exposures and pets

  • : reference category