Table 9

Indications for hospitalisation of patients with a COPD exacerbation

The presence of high-risk co-morbid conditions, including pneumonia, cardiac arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure
Inadequate response of symptoms to outpatient management
Marked increase in dyspnoea
Inability to eat or sleep due to symptoms
Worsening hypoxaemia
Worsening hypercapnia
Changes in mental status
Inability of the patient to care for her/himself (lack of home support)
Uncertain diagnosis
Inadequate home care