Table 5

Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to cigarette smoking and occupational exposures

Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)#PAR %
Any COPD
Self-reported VGDF exposure+2.0 (1.6–2.5)2.0 (1.6–2.5)20
JEM exposure probability
 Low (referent)1.01.0
 Intermediate1.5 (1.1–1.9)1.4 (1.1–1.9)6
 High1.4 (0.98–2.1)1.6 (1.1–2.5)3
Cigarette smoking status
 Never (referent)1.01.0
 Former2.8 (2.1–3.7)2.9 (2.1–3.9)28
 Current4.5 (3.3–6.2)4.4 (3.2–6.1)22
COPD or emphysema §
Self-reported VGDF exposure+2.7 (2.0–3.6)2.6 (1.8–3.5)31
JEM exposure probability
 Low (referent)1.01.0
 Intermediate1.6 (1.1–2.3)1.5 (1.04–2.2)8
 High2.1 (1.3–3.3)1.9 (1.2–3.2)6
Cigarette smoking status
 Never (referent)1.01.0
 Former6.0 (3.6–10.0)5.9 (3.5–9.9)42
 Current11.0 (6.5–18.8)10.6 (6.2–18.4)34
  • OR: odds ratio

  • CI: confidence interval

  • PAR: population attributable risk

  • VGDF: vapours, gases, dusts or fumes

  • JEM: job exposure matrix

  • #: derived from models with age, sex, race, smoking status and occupational exposure (self-report or exposure likelihood) and adjusted for self-reported occupational exposure

  • smoking ORs estimated from a model including the JEM were not substantively different from those reported here

  • : reported physician diagnoses of emphysema, COPD and/or chronic bronchitis with or without a concomitant diagnosis of asthma (n=377)

  • +: during longest-held job

  • §: narrower definition of COPD, excluding those with chronic bronchitis alone (n=189)