7

Respiratory and atopic outcomes in relation to estimated pollutant levels at residence for children additionally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke

OutcomeCrude reference prevalence % (raw number)Crude prevalence % (raw number)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Soot
 Asthma10.3 (117/1136)16.7 (16/96)1.746 (0.978–3.115)#
 Current asthma5.2 (60/1156)10.1 (10/99)2.070 (1.013–4.231)
 Current wheeze8.9 (102/1144)13.5 (13/96)1.582 (0.848–2.950)
 Cough18.9 (218/1151)27.6 (27/98)1.668 (1.042–2.670)
 Hay fever10.5 (120/1143)16.3 (16/98)1.549 (0.862–2.784)
 Skin­prick test17.3 (113/655)19.7 (13/66)1.223 (0.629–2.379)
 Pollen13.3 (87/654)16.7 (11/66)1.363 (0.669–2.777)
 Specific IgE aeroallergens33.4 (156/467)34.0 (16/47)0.980 (0.512–1.874)
Benzene
 Asthma10.4 (118/1130)14.6 (15/103)1.437 (0.797–2.588)
 Current asthma5.2 (60/1150)11.4 (12/105)2.407 (1.235–4.692)+
 Current wheeze9.3 (106/1137)13.7 (14/102)1.593 (0.871–2.915)
 Cough18.6 (213/1145)24.3 (25/103)1.407 (0.873–2.269)
 Hay fever10.5 (119/1137)15.4 (16/104)1.432 (0.799–2.565)
 Skin­prick test16.9 (110/651)19.4 (13/67)1.274 (0.655–2.479)
 Pollen12.9 (84/651)13.4 (9/67)1.109 (0.517–2.377)
 Specific IgE aeroallergens34.3 (158/461)30.6 (15/49)0.860 (0.448–1.653)
NO2
 Asthma10.3 (117/1131)15.5 (15/97)1.563 (0.865–2.826)
 Current asthma5.2 (60/1151)9.1 (9/99)1.837 (0.873–3.867)
 Current wheeze9.0 (103/1139)13.5 (13/96)1.607 (0.861–2.999)
 Cough18.9 (217/1147)28.6 (28/98)1.722 (1.081–2.744)
 Hay fever10.3 (117/1138)16.3 (16/98)1.538 (0.855–2.766)
 Skin­prick test17.3 (112/649)21.7 (15/69)1.442 (0.765–2.718)
 Pollen13.3 (86/648)17.4 (12/69)1.487 (0.747–2.963)
 Specific IgE aeroallergens34.0 (157/462)35.8 (19/53)1.093 (0.595–2.007)
  • OR: odds ratio

  • CI: confidence interval

  • Ig: immunoglobulin

  • NO2: nitrogen dioxide

  • ORs adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and family history of asthma, hay fever, or eczema. High exposure tertiles analysed versus rest of population

  • Soot (µg·m−3): 8.07–9.24, >9.24–10.73, >10.73

  • Benzene (µg·m−3): 4.74–5.31, >5.31–7.27, >7.27

  • NO2 (µg·m−3): 42.87–47.15, >47.15–57.44, >57.44

  • For brevity, ORs (95% CI) and prevalences are only shown for highest traffic exposure tertile for each outcome variable

  • #: p=0.05–≤0.10

  • : p=0.01–≤0.05

  • +: p≤0.01