6

Respiratory and atopic outcomes in relation to estimated pollutant levels at residence

OutcomeCrude reference prevalence % (raw numbers)Crude prevalence % (raw numbers)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Soot
 Asthma10.1 (301/2982)13.2 (26/197)1.423 (0.920–2.201)
 Current asthma5.0 (152/3031)8.0 (16/201)1.763 (1.021–3.044)
 Current wheeze8.6 (259/2996)11.2 (22/197)1.409 (0.883–2.248)
 Cough17.9 (537/3008)24.1 (48/199)1.483 (1.055–2.086)
 Hay fever11.9 (357/2993)12.8 (25/196)1.103 (0.708–1.721)
 Skin­prick test20.5 (344/1682)16.0 (21/131)0.864 (0.528–1.417)
 Pollen15.2 (255/1675)12.3 (16/130)0.904 (0.520–1.573)
 Specific IgE aeroallergens36.8 (463/1258)37.9 (36/95)1.124 (0.723–1.747)
Benzene
 Asthma10.1 (302/2979)12.4 (25/201)1.269 (0.816–1.975)
 Current asthma5.1 (153/3029)9.3 (19/204)2.045 (1.227–3.407)+
 Current wheeze8.8 (263/2992)13.0 (26/200)1.646 (1.062–2.552)
 Cough17.7 (533/3005)23.4 (47/201)1.423 (1.010–2.005)
 Hay fever11.8 (353/2988)10.9 (22/201)0.900 (0.565–1.434)
 Skin­prick test20.4 (343/1684)14.6 (18/123)0.768 (0.453–1.300)
 Pollen15.0 (251/1678)9.8 (12/123)0.688 (0.369–1.283)
 Specific IgE aeroallergens37.4 (469/1255)34.8 (31/89)0.983 (0.619–1.563)
NO2
 Asthma10.2 (304/2980)12.1 (24/199)1.282 (0.817–2.010)
 Current asthma5.1 (154/3029)7.4 (15/202)1.655 (0.944–2.901)#
 Current wheeze8.8 (263/2992)12.1 (24/198)1.579 (1.005–2.482)
 Cough17.9 (538/3007)25.5 (51/200)1.599 (1.144–2.234)+
 Hay fever11.8 (352/2990)12.2 (24/197)1.038 (0.661–1.630)
 Skin­prick test20.5 (344/1676)15.4 (20/130)0.818 (0.495–1.354)
 Pollen15.2 (254/1669)10.9 (14/129)0.777 (0.433–1.394)
 Specific IgE aeroallergens37.1 (464/1251)38.1 (37/97)1.141 (0.736–1.767)
  • OR: odds ratio

  • CI: confidence interval

  • Ig: immunoglobulin

  • NO2: nitrogen dioxide

  • ORs adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and family history of asthma, hay fever, or eczema. High exposure tertiles analysed versus rest of population

  • Soot (µg·m−3): 8.07–9.24, >9.24–10.73, >10.73

  • Benzene (µg·m−3): 4.74–5.31, >5.31–7.27, >7.27

  • NO2 (µg·m−3): 42.87–47.15, >47.15–57.44, >57.44

  • For brevity, ORs (95% CI) and prevalences are only shown for highest traffic exposure tertile for each outcome variable

  • #: p=0.05–≤0.10

  • : p=0.01–≤0.05

  • +: p≤0.01