Table 1

Epidemiological features and host characteristics of Echinococcus

Geographical distributionFrequency and severity of human infectionDefinitive hostIntermediate host
E. granulosus WorldwideMajority of human infection caused by this strain, also the most pathogenicPrimarily dogs, other caninesSheep, cattle, horses, pigs, camels
E. multilocularis Northern Hemisphere (Central Europe, Russia, western China, northern Japan, North America, North Africa)Restricted animal hosts limit human infection but severe infections can occurPrimarily foxes, wolves, dogs, coyotes, catsRodents, deer, moose, reindeer, bison
E. vogeli Central and South AmericaDisease intermediate in severity between E. granulosus and E. multilocularisWild canines (bush dogs)Rodents, pacas
E. oligarthrus Central and South AmericaOnly few reported casesWild felids (pumas, jaguars)Rodents, rabbits