Table 7—

Simultaneous adjustment for fruit intake and plasma analyte levels on respiratory symptoms and difference in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1).

Model AModel BModel C
Phlegm ≥3 months·yr−1
 Fruit intake
  ≥1 day0.40 (0.17–0.92)0.42 (0.18–0.98)
  1–6 week0.82 (0.46–1.44)0.85 (0.47–1.51)
  1–3 month0.86 (0.46–1.63)0.86 (0.45–1.64)
 Vitamin C0.97 (0.77–1.24)1.02 (0.80–1.31)
 Vitamin A1.15 (0.92–1.44)1.16 (0.93–1.09)
 Vitamin E0.88 (0.69–1.11)0.88 (0.69–1.11)
 β-carotene0.80 (0.60–1.07)0.81 (0.60–1.09)
 Chi-squared (df)81.7 (10)81.1 (11)86.2 (14)
Phlegm in the morning in winter
 Fruit intake
  ≥1 day0.48 (0.25–0.92)0.47 (0.24–0.93)
  1–6 week0.67 (0.40–1.10)0.66 (0.40–1.10)
  1–3 month0.67 (0.38–1.18)0.65 (0.36–1.15)
 Vitamin C1.02 (0.84–1.25)1.07 (0.87–1.30)
 Vitamin A1.15 (0.95–1.39)1.15 (0.95–1.40)
 Vitamin E0.76 (0.62–0.95)0.76 (0.61–0.94)
 β-carotene0.93 (0.75–1.15)0.94 (0.76–1.18)
 Chi-squared (df)96.1 (10)99.0 (11)104.0 (14)
FEV1#
 Fruit intake
  ≥1 day182 (49–315)137 (1–272)
  1–6 week133 (20–246)116 (3–229)
  1–3 month70 (−58–198)67 (−61–194)
 Vitamin C64 (26–101)57 (18–95)
 Vitamin A24 (−13–61)24 (−14–61)
 Vitamin E−9 (−46–28)−9 (−45–28)
 β-carotene12 (−23–47)9 (−26–44)
 F statistic (df)86.4 (13924)81.0 (14923)67.2 (17920)
 Mean squares356728625807622134713
  • Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for adjustment for fruit intake and plasma analyte levels on respiratory symptoms (n=98), and as n (95% confidence interval) for difference in FEV1 (mL; n=937) unless otherwise stated

  • Models A, B and C adjusted for age, sex, smoking, social class and activity level

  • df: degrees of freedom

  • #: models adjusted for age, age2, height and height2, sex, smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, social class and activity level