Model A | Model B | Model C | |
Phlegm in the morning in winter | |||
Vitamin C | 0.74 (0.62–0.88) | 1.01 (0.83–1.23) | 1.02 (0.84–1.25) |
Chi-squared (df) | 12.5 (1) | 0.0 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
Vitamin A | 0.99 (0.84–1.16) | 1.06 (0.89–1.26) | 1.15 (0.95–1.39) |
Chi-squared (df) | 0.1 (1) | 0.4 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
Vitamin E | 0.76 (0.64–0.91) | 0.87 (0.72–1.04) | 0.80 (0.65–0.99) |
Chi-squared (df) | 10.0 (1) | 2.5 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
β-carotene | 0.76 (0.63–0.93) | 0.88 (0.71–1.10) | 0.92 (0.74–1.15) |
Chi-squared (df) | 8.1 (1) | 1.4 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
Phlegm ≥3 months·yr^{−1} | |||
Vitamin C | 0.70 (0.56–0.86) | 0.92 (0.73–1.17) | 0.94 (0.74–1.20) |
Chi-squared (df) | 12.2 (1) | 0.5 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
Vitamin A | 1.01 (0.84–1.22) | 1.11 (0.91–1.35) | 1.17 (0.94–1.46) |
Chi-squared (df) | 0.0 (1) | 0.9 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
Vitamin E | 0.80 (0.65–0.98) | 0.93 (0.76–1.14) | 0.87 (0.68–1.11) |
Chi-squared (df) | 5.1 (1) | 0.5 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
β-carotene | 0.68 (0.52–0.87) | 0.78 (0.59–1.03) | 0.81 (0.61–1.09) |
Chi-squared (df) | 10.7 (1) | 3.3 (1) | 1.9 (1) |
Wheezing attacks with shortness of breath | |||
Vitamin C | 0.97 (0.82–1.14) | 1.06 (0.88–1.28) | 1.02 (0.84–1.24) |
Chi-squared (df) | 0.1 (1) | 0.3 (1) | 7.9 (1) |
Vitamin A | 1.20 (1.02–1.40) | 1.27 (1.07–1.50) | 1.31 (1.09–1.58) |
Chi-squared (df) | 4.9 (1) | 7.5 (1) | 7.9 (1) |
Vitamin E | 1.00 (0.86–1.18) | 1.05 (0.89–1.24) | 0.93 (0.77–1.13) |
Chi-squared (df) | 0.0 (1) | 0.4 (1) | 7.9 (1) |
β-carotene | 1.03 (0.89–1.22) | 1.12 (0.94–1.32) | 1.10 (0.92–1.31) |
Chi-squared (df) | 0.2 (1) | 0.2 (1) | 7.9 (1) |
Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise stated
Model A adjusts for age and sex
Model B adjusts for age, sex, social class, smoking status and activity level
Model C adjusts for age, social class, smoking status, activity level and all other plasma analytes
df: degrees of freedom
n=982