Table 6—

Respiratory symptoms and plasma analyte level

Model AModel BModel C
Phlegm in the morning in winter
 Vitamin C0.74 (0.62–0.88)1.01 (0.83–1.23)1.02 (0.84–1.25)
 Chi-squared (df)12.5 (1)0.0 (1)1.9 (1)
 Vitamin A0.99 (0.84–1.16)1.06 (0.89–1.26)1.15 (0.95–1.39)
 Chi-squared (df)0.1 (1)0.4 (1)1.9 (1)
 Vitamin E0.76 (0.64–0.91)0.87 (0.72–1.04)0.80 (0.65–0.99)
 Chi-squared (df)10.0 (1)2.5 (1)1.9 (1)
 β-carotene0.76 (0.63–0.93)0.88 (0.71–1.10)0.92 (0.74–1.15)
 Chi-squared (df)8.1 (1)1.4 (1)1.9 (1)
Phlegm ≥3 months·yr−1
 Vitamin C0.70 (0.56–0.86)0.92 (0.73–1.17)0.94 (0.74–1.20)
 Chi-squared (df)12.2 (1)0.5 (1)1.9 (1)
 Vitamin A1.01 (0.84–1.22)1.11 (0.91–1.35)1.17 (0.94–1.46)
 Chi-squared (df)0.0 (1)0.9 (1)1.9 (1)
 Vitamin E0.80 (0.65–0.98)0.93 (0.76–1.14)0.87 (0.68–1.11)
 Chi-squared (df)5.1 (1)0.5 (1)1.9 (1)
 β-carotene0.68 (0.52–0.87)0.78 (0.59–1.03)0.81 (0.61–1.09)
 Chi-squared (df)10.7 (1)3.3 (1)1.9 (1)
Wheezing attacks with shortness of breath
 Vitamin C0.97 (0.82–1.14)1.06 (0.88–1.28)1.02 (0.84–1.24)
 Chi-squared (df)0.1 (1)0.3 (1)7.9 (1)
 Vitamin A1.20 (1.02–1.40)1.27 (1.07–1.50)1.31 (1.09–1.58)
 Chi-squared (df)4.9 (1)7.5 (1)7.9 (1)
 Vitamin E1.00 (0.86–1.18)1.05 (0.89–1.24)0.93 (0.77–1.13)
 Chi-squared (df)0.0 (1)0.4 (1)7.9 (1)
 β-carotene1.03 (0.89–1.22)1.12 (0.94–1.32)1.10 (0.92–1.31)
 Chi-squared (df)0.2 (1)0.2 (1)7.9 (1)
  • Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise stated

  • Model A adjusts for age and sex

  • Model B adjusts for age, sex, social class, smoking status and activity level

  • Model C adjusts for age, social class, smoking status, activity level and all other plasma analytes

  • df: degrees of freedom

  • n=982