Table 1

New therapies under development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

BronchodilatorsTiotropium bromide
Selective phosphodiesterase type-IV inhibitors
Mediator antagonistsLeukotriene B4 antagonists
Lipoxygenase inhibitors
Chemokine inhibitors
Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors
Anti-inflammatoryPhosphodiesterase inhibitors
drugsTranscription factor nuclear factor-κB inhibitors
Adhesion molecule blockers
Proteinase inhibitorsNeutrophil elastase inhibitors Cathepsin G and proteinase-3 inhibitors Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins)
MucoregulatorsTachykinin antagonists
Sensory neuropeptide inhibitors
Mediator and enzyme inhibitors
Mucin gene suppressors
Mucolytic agents
Macrolide antibiotics
Purinoceptor blockers
Alveolar repairRetinoic acid-receptor subtype agonists
Hepatocyte growth factor
SurgeryLung volume reduction surgery
  • Adapted from data from 19