Table 4—

Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and odds ratios (OR) for association with fruit consumption

PrevalenceModel AModel BModel C
Phlegm in the morning in winter
 Frequency of fruit consumption
  ≥1 day11.00.29 (0.23–0.36)0.64 (0.49–0.83)0.66 (0.51–0.87)
  1–6 week15.00.40 (0.33–0.48)0.66 (0.54–0.81)0.69 (0.56–0.85)
  1–3 month23.10.66 (0.54–0.82)0.78 (0.63–0.98)0.82 (0.65–1.02)
  <1 month31.21.01.01.0
  Chi-squared (df)163.3 (3)25.8 (3)18.9 (3)
  p-value***0.0010.006
Phlegm for ≥3 months·yr−1
 Frequency of fruit consumption
  ≥1 day6.40.27 (0.20–0.36)0.67 (0.49–0.91)0.66 (0.48–0.92)
  1–6 week9.20.40 (0.32–0.49)0.71 (0.56–0.89)0.73 (0.57–0.93)
  1–3 month16.00.72 (0.57–0.91)0.90 (0.70–1.15)0.93 (0.72–1.21)
  <1 month21.21.01.01.0
  Chi-squared (df)135.3 (3)19.7 (3)15.8 (3)
  p-value******0.002
Wheezing attacks with shortness of breath
 Frequency of fruit consumption
  ≥1 day15.10.79 (0.61–1.01)1.02 (0.78–1.33)1.09 (0.83–1.43)
  1–6 week13.10.66 (0.53–0.82)0.82 (0.65–1.02)0.87 (0.68–1.10)
  1–3 month15.50.80 (0.61–1.02)0.88 (0.69–1.13)0.92 (0.71–1.18)
  <1 month19.11.01.01.0
  Chi-squared (df)20.1 (3)9.4 (3)7.8 (3)
  p-value0.0030.1850.243
  • Data are presented as OR (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise stated

  • Model A adjusts for age and sex

  • Model B adjusts for age, sex, social class, smoking status and activity level

  • Model C adjusts for age, sex, social class, smoking status, activity level and all other dietary intakes

  • df: degrees of freedom

  • n=7406

  • ***: p<0.001