Table 3—

Difference in forced expiratory volume in one second (mL) by frequency of fresh fruit, vegetables and fish intake, compared to lowest intake category

Model AModel BModel C
Fresh fruit#
 ≥1 day280 (229–332)159 (105–213)132 (77–188)
 1–6 week205 (159–250)119 (72–157)100 (52–147)
 1–3 month111 (60–162)72 (20–123)63 (11–115)
 F statistic (df)47.3 (36584)12.9 (36185)8.1 (36184)
 p-value*********
Green vegetables
 ≥1 day164 (116–211)106 (57–155)91 (32–150)
 1–6 week118 (73–62)72 (27–117)57 (9–105)
 F statistic (df)22.4 (26584)9.2 (26185)4.6 (26184)
 p-value******0.003
Raw vegetables
 ≥1 day143 (93–192)82 (32–133)39 (−14–92)
 1–6 week96 (68–125)49 (20–78)25 (−6–55)
 F statistic (df)26.9 (26584)7.3 (26185)1.6 (26185)
 p-value******0.077
Root vegetables
 ≥1 day84 (37–130)41 (−6–88)−44 (−101–14)
 1–6 week78 (41–114)47 (10–84)4 (−35–44)
 F statistic (df)9.2 (26584)3.0 (26185)2.8 (26184)
 p-value0.0010.1050.139
Nonwhite fish#
 ≥1 week91 (61–121)50 (20–81)29 (−3–61)
 1–3 month71 (39–103)42 (10–75)27 (−6–60)
 F statistic (df)19.4 (26584)5.9 (26185)1.9 (26184)
 p-value***0.0010.078
White fish#
 ≥1 day90 (56–124)53 (19–88)27 (−9–63)
 1–3 month93 (55–131)65 (26–103)49 (10–88)
 F statistic (df)15.3 (26584)6.1 (26185)3.1 (26184)
 p-value***0.0130.363
  • Data are presented as n (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise stated

  • Model A adjusted for height, height2, age, age2 and sex

  • Model B adjusted for height, height2, age, age2, sex, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, social class and activity level

  • Model C adjusted for height, height2, age, age2, sex, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, social class, activity level and other dietary intakes

  • df: degrees of freedom

  • #: reference category less than once per month

  • : less than once per week. n=6186

  • ***: p<0.001