Table 4—

Standardised mean difference with FEV1 as outcome measure

First author [ref no.]Effect size
dSd
Chow 254.4254.008
Fung 268.8503.506
Morton 281.7103.376
Tashkin 23−7.80010.933
Tashkin 302.1002.482
Overall3.5351.577
Chow 250.2570.254
Fung 260.5530.247
Morton 280.1300.279
Tashkin 23−0.1380.201
Tashkin 300.2250.292
Overall0.1720.111
  • FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second

  • d: standardised mean difference

  • Sd: standard error