Table 3—

Three comparative attributable risk scenarios for chronic cough and/or chronic phlegm among adults

Risk factorExposure levels for the risk functionExposure/response function# (95% CI)Relevant fraction of adult populationBaseline frequency (prevalence) of outcomeMean policy scenarioExpected prevented proportion due to successful scenario
Current smokingCurrent smoking versus never smoking2.4+33% (smokers)16.7%50% reduction in smoking prevalence∼25%
Passive smoking (ETS)ETS versus no ETS among neversmokers1.65 (1.28–2.16)13% (ETS, only neversmokers considered)11.2%50% reduction in ETS prevalence among neversmokers∼7%
Air pollution (PM10 annual mean) among neversmokersPer 10 µg·m−3 PM10 annual mean1.27 (1.08–1.50)44% (i.e. 100% of the neversmokers)7%Reduction of population PM10 annual mean by 10 µg·m−3∼8%
  • All data based on the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases population, a random population sample across eight Swiss areas, aged 18–60 yrs (Zemp et al. 6)

  • #: relative risk point estimate

  • : in the relevant population

  • +: crude estimate derived from Zemp et al. 6

  • CI: confidence interval

  • ETS: environmental tobacco smoke

  • PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 µm