Table 2—

Air pollution-attributable number of cases and proportions in France, Austria, and Switzerland, based on the Trinational World Health Organisation study

Health outcomeRisk function#Type of health effectAttributable cases (lower–upper bound)Attributable proportionMonetary value () attached per case+
Total mortality (adults ≥30 yrs of age)4.3 (2.6–6.1)LT40600 (24600–56900)∼6%900000
Hospital admissions (all ages)Respiratory: 1.31 (0.1–2.5)ST48000 (17,300–79100)∼2%7870
Cardiovascascular: 1.25 (0.7–1.9)
Chronic bronchitis incidence (≥25 yrs)9.8 (0.9–19.4)LT47100 (4300–93500)∼12%209000
Bronchitis (children <15 yrs)30.6 (13.5–50.2)ST543000 (239500–981600)∼30%131
Restricted activity days (adults ≥20 yrs)9.4 (7.9–10.9)ST30.5 million (25.7–37.3 million)∼12%94
Asthma attacksChildren: 4.4 (2.7–6.2)ST1.04 million (0.54–1.54 million)∼6%31
Adults: 3.9 (1.9–5.9)
  • Population size of the three countries: 73.4 million. See 9, 10, 16–18 for more details

  • LT: long-term

  • ST: short term

  • #: % increase (95% confidence interval (CI)) per 10 µg·m−3 PM10 annual mean

  • : point estimate (lower–upper bounds are based on the risk estimates of the 95% CI)

  • +: Sommer et al. 9