Table 3—

Effects of ambroxol on the levels of tomour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice infected with influenza-A virus

Cytokine pg·ml−1Dose of ambroxol mg·kg−1·day−1Days after virus infection
1234567
TNF-α0155.5±36.2124.2±27.867.7±7.328.9±0.257.1±15.864.1±29.312.3±3.2
10150.6±21.3108.9±17.357.8±20.223.1±8.329.0±8.5*61.6±24.09.8±2.3
30123.5±26.484.8±18.835.5±5.4*19.2±3.3*45.2±23.241.5±17.010.6±3.6
IL-12022.4±8.993.4±12.1138.3±8.8184.7±8.574.7±21.932.6±4.788.3±33.0
1027.3±7.168.5±12.9*133.3±17.2119.5±15.8*57.4±16.029.4±6.262.5±27.7
3022.4±4.1108.2±33.3141.5±15.1118.6±11.4*62.4±13.644.3±29.195.8±52.2
IFN-γ017.5±2.612.6±2.33.9±0.87.1±0.940.4±10.849.5±26.65.3±2.9
109.4±2.4*9.5±1.82.8±0.95.3±2.814.7±5.3*39.4±18.64.0±1.6
3010.4±2.7*9.8±2.44.0±1.110.2±5.532.8±11.161.8±21.75.1±1.8
IL-60139.1±45.2196.0±22.6268.0±75.2216.2±60.2459.8±127.1430.0±63.672.1±13.0
10174.8±35.0191.8±51.9280.2±54.2339.2±57.1*540.9±84.2503.2±61.473.7±14.7
30170.8±28.9186.7±19.6326.2±44.9433.5±101.9*478.2±86.4817.0±168.0*80.0±17.5
  • The data are presented as means±sd unless otherwise stated, (n=5) at each time point

  • *: p<0.05 between control and ambroxol