Table 3—

Dietary predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

VariableCaseControlUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted# OR (95% CI)p‐value for adjusted odds
Fruit
 0–22 g57 (38.0)37 (31.9)110.12
 23–120 g76 (50.7)49 (42.2)1.00 (0.58, 1.74)0.97 (0.50, 1.85)
 121 g17 (11.3)30 (25.9)0.36 (0.17, 0.75)0.45 (0.19, 1.06)
Vegetables
 0–49 g57 (38.0)31 (26.7)110.02+
 50–92 g51 (34.0)37 (31.9)0.76 (0.41, 1.40)0.74 (0.36, 1.51)
 93 g40 (26.7)48 (41.4)0.46 (0.25, 0.85)0.46 (0.23, 0.94)
Dairy
 0–203 g53 (35.3)33 (28.4)110.13
 204–288 g44 (29.3)48 (41.4)0.57 (0.31, 1.03)0.57 (0.28, 1.15)
 289 g50 (33.3)35 (30.2)0.88 (0.48, 1.64)1.12 (0.53, 2.35)
Starch
 0–191 g46 (30.7)36 (31.0)110.48
 192–283 g50 (33.3)35 (30.2)1.11 (0.60, 2.06)1.50 (0.72, 3.15)
 284 g51 (34.0)45 (38.8)0.88 (0.49, 1.60)1.48 (0.70, 3.10)
Alcohol
 0 units53 (35.3)27 (23.3)110.33
 1–5 units·week−161 (40.7)58 (50.0)0.53 (0.29, 0.96)0.62 (0.31, 1.26)
 1 unit·day−133 (22.0)31 (26.7)0.54 (0.27, 1.06)0.59 (0.27, 1.31)
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise stated

  • OR: odds ratio

  • CI: confidence interval

  • #: adjusted for vegetable intake, age and body mass index

  • : wines, beer, spirits, liqueurs

  • +: test for trend only shown for vegetables