Table 2—

Average values of diaphragmatic movement during deep, slow breathing

GroupYoung adultsControl subjectsPatients with emphysemap-valuep-value between controls and patients
Excursion cm5.53±0.174.38±0.171.20±0.97<0.00010.002
Displacement length cm8.63±0.435.28±0.534.27±0.73<0.0001ns
Total diaphragmatic movement cm2227.6±18.9121.9±11.099.5±21.2<0.0001ns
Paradoxical movement
 Total Mp cm21.2±0.51.6±0.96.9±3.5nsns
 Mp %0.46±0.181.20±0.6010.79±4.890.02670.0429
 Mp+ cm20.59±0.20.86±0.53.13±1.8nsns
 Mpr+ %0.25±0.100.66±0.374.85±2.42nsns
 Mp− cm20.57±0.30.73±0.53.78±1.7nsns
 Mpr− %0.21±0.090.54±0.325.93±2.500.01510.0027
  • Data are presented as mean±sd

  • Mp: paradoxical movement

  • Mp+: downward Mp during a decrease lung area

  • Mp−: upward Mp during an increase in lung area

  • Mpr: paradoxical movement ratio

  • Mpr+: ratio of downward Mp during an decrease in lung area

  • Mpr−: ratio of upward Mp during an increase in lung area

  • ns: nonsignificant