Table 1—

Summary of Italian guidelines on tuberculosis preventive therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons

Candidates for preventive therapy
 Positive tuberculin reaction (induration ≥5 mm at 48–72 h) or
 Prior documented positive tuberculin reaction, untreated or
 Recent contacts with tuberculosis patients
Pretreatment evaluation
 Chest radiography and clinical examination
 Measurement of serum AST and bilirubin
 Microbiological examination for Mycobacterium tuberculosis only in presence of radiographical or clinical
 findings suspicious of active tuberculosis
Contraindications to preventive therapy
 History of adverse effects of isoniazid
 Severe or decompensated liver disease
 Serum AST above three times the upper limit of normal level
Recommended drug regimen
 Self-administered isoniazid (300 mg daily) plus pyridoxine (50 mg daily) for 6–12 months
Monitoring of treatment
 Monthly clinical examination and measurement of serum AST
  • AST: aspartate aminotrans ferase