Table 1—

Demographic socioeconomic characteristics of the children studied in the three surveys according to urban area of residence

Area AArea BArea AArea BArea AArea B
Subjects n225912291139
 SexM1154 (51.1)635 (51.7)561 (49.2)
F1105 (48.9)594 (48.3)579 (50.8)
 Age yrs
  <9.91098 (48.6)611 (49.7)620 (54.4)
  >101161 (51.4)618 (50.3)518 (45.6)
Socio economic characteristics
 Living in house with >4 rooms5.831.79.844.810.345.1
 Father's nonmanual activity5.630.
 Habitually engaging in organized sport32.657.737.664.239.661.4
 Household smoking (% of families consuming the given no. of cigarettes·day−1)
  • Data are presented as n (%) or %

  • Urban area A: intensive housing, high buildings, chemical industries, heavy traffic, scarce green areas (lower standard of living)

  • Urban area B: lower and widely spaced buildings, no chemical industries, light traffic, wide green areas (higher standard of living)

  • significant difference between urban areas, (p<0.05, Chi-squared test)