Table 3

Guideline-derived measures of control

GINA treatment goalsLevel 1 controlLevel 2 controlLevel 3 control
Minimal (ideally no) chronic symptoms, including nocturnal symptomsSymptom score 0 (daytime and night-time)Symptom score - day: 0 or 1; night: 0<4 consecutive days with symptoms (night-time score >0, daytime score >1) or amPEF <80% predicted, or diurnal variations in PEF >20%
Minimal (infrequent) episodesNo exacerbationsNo exacerbationsNo more than three nocturnal awakenings in any month
No emergency visitsNo use of rescue medicationRescue medication ≤once dailyNo more that 3 days with symptoms (nigh-time score >0, daytime score >1) in any week
Minimal need for rescue β2-agonistDiurnal variation in PEF <20%Diurnal variation in PEF <20%No moderate or severe exacerbations
No limitations on activities, including exerciseamPEF >85% predamPEF≥80% predictedNo more than one can of rescue medication (200 puffs) in any month
PEF variability <20%No treatment related adverse eventsNo treatment-related adverse eventsNo treatment-related adverse events
(Near) normal PEF
Minimal (or no) adverse effects from medicine
  • GINA: Global Initiative for Asthma; PEF: peak expiratory flow.