TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics and follow-up findings in patients with severe/critical and mild /moderate COVID-19

COVID-19 survivorsSevere/critical disease (n=66)Mild/moderate disease (n=47)
Number (%), mean (sd), median (IQR)p-value#
CHARACTERSTICS AT BASELINE
Gender, men/women40/2627/200.89
Age, years60.3 (12.0)52.9 (10.9)<0.001
Ever smokers %56%37%0.16
Body mass index, kg/m229.8 (5.7)25.5 (4.7)0.02
D-Dimers, µg/L+1011 (366–1989)387 (1–658)0.26
Mechanical ventilation#71%
Duration of mechanical ventilation, days#11.9 (9.5–18)
COMORBIDITIES
Interstitial lung disease6%3%0.58
COPD12%3%0.18
Asthma9%19%0.32
Arterial hypertension55%8%0.003
Diabetes35%0%0.04
GERD10%9%1
Sleep apnea16%3%0.09
Chronic heart failure10%9%1
Chronic renal failure19%0%0.009
Cancer6%5%1
Depression or antiety12%7%0.66
PULMONARY FUNCTION AT FOLLOW-UP (n=72)
FEV/FVC, %94.7 (13.7)84.2 (14.3)<0.001
TLC, L5.22 (1.5)6.5 (1.6)0.050
TLC, % predicted86.0 (20.0)102.0 (19.3)0.047
FVC, L3.28 (1.01)4.12 (1.2)<0.001
FVC, % predicted86.6 (20.1)95.6 (17.9)0.02
FEV1, L2.64 (0.8)3.34 (1.1)<0.001
FEV1, % predicted89.4 (20.7)94.0 (15.6)0.19
DLCO, % predicted73.2 (18.4)95.3 (20.6)0.003
PImax, kPa10.3 (8.8)8.1 (2.6)0.14
PEmax, kPa8.7 (3.3)10.3 (4.1)0.20
OXYGENATION AT FOLLOW-UP (n=72)
paO2, mmHg79.0 (12.2)87.5 (9.0)0.0002
6-MWD, meters456 (105)576 (78)0.001
O2 nadir on 6MWT90 (4.5)93 (3.1)0.001
O2 desaturation 6MWT5.6 (3.8)2.6 (3.1)0.02

#p-values from two-sample t-tests, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, chi square test, or Fisher's Exact Test.

¶38 missing,.

+59 missing, *11 missing.

Abbreviations: COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CT: computed tomography DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; FEV1: forced vital capacity in 1 min; FVC: forced vital capacity; GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease; paO2: arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PImax: maximal inspiratory pressure; PEmax: maximal expiratory pressure; TLC: total lung capacity; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; 6MWT: 6-min walk test.