Baseline characteristics of patients

 Age years3567.2±7.0
 Male %1954.3
 BMI kg·m−23526.9±5.2
 Smoking pack-years3545 (33 to 68)
 Comorbidities352 (1 to 4)
 GOLD grade %
Baseline medications %
Lung function
 FEV1 L351.4±0.5
 FEV1 % predicted3550.2±14.5
 FVC L353.6±1.0
 FVC % predicted35103.6±16.9
 FEV1/FVC % predicted3538.5±10.1
 FIV1 L253.2±0.9
Raw kPa·s·L−1270.6±0.3
Exercise capacity
 6MWD m35400.6±86.8
 mMRC352 (2 to 3)
Mortality score
 BODE index353 (2 to 4)
Inflammatory marker
 Plasma fibrinogen mg·dL−135341.1±72.5

Data are presented as n, mean±sd or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; FIV1: forced inspiratory volume in 1 s; Raw: airway resistance; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; SGRQ: St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; LCQ: Leicester Cough Questionnaire; VAS: visual analogue scale; BODE: BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise capacity. #: pre-treatment 1 data used.