Primary and secondary outcomes according to group

HFNCControlOR (95% CI)Mean difference (95% CI)
Patients n133135
Primary outcome (escalating within 7 days)#19 (14)27 (20)0.66 (0.35–1.26)
Secondary outcome
  •  Failure requiring ICU transfer within 7 days (ICU on-site or tertiary care)

21 (15)§26 (19)ƒ0.78 (0.41–1.41)
  •  Length of nutritional support days

2.9±2.12.4±2.20.50 (−0.04–1.04)
  •  Length of oxygen support days+

1.7±1.72.5±2−0.80 (−1.2–−0.3)
  •  Length of stay on general ward unit days

4.4±2.43.8±2.70.6 (−0.04–1.2)

Data are presented as n (%) or mean±sd of patients, unless otherwise stated. HFNC: high-flow nasal cannula; ICU: intensive care unit. #: noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or HFNC support in control group and NIV support in HFNC group in case of failure; : until discharge at home or ICU-level admission; +: inspiratory oxygen fraction >21% (HFNC group) or nasal oxygen requirement (control group) until discharge at home or ICU-level admission; §: two additional patients in study group who failed were kept on HFNC during their paediatric ICU stay; ƒ: one patient in control group who failed and escalated on HFNC was kept on the paediatric general ward.