TABLE 1

Description of clinical characteristics and multivariate analysis in training cohort

VariablesClinical characteristicsMultivariate analysis in training cohort
Training cohort (n=86)Validation cohort (n=62)OR (95% CI)Score
Group
 Non-progressed group52 (60.5%)36 (58.1%)
 Progressed group34 (39.5%)26 (41.9%)
Time of progression days5.5 (1.0–9.0)5.0 (3.0–9.8)
Age years50.5 (37.0–60.5)44.5 (35.0–53.0)
Age range years
 <4027 (31.4%)21 (33.9%)
 40–4915 (17.4%)14 (22.6%)
 50–5922 (25.6%)15 (24.2%)
 60–6913 (15.1%)9 (14.5%)
 70–797 (8.1%)2 (3.2%)
 ≥802 (2.3%)1 (1.6%)
Female45 (52.3%)36 (58.1%)
Comorbidity42 (48.8%)15 (24.2%)3.436 (1.084–10.896)12× (0/1; no=0, yes=1)
Dyspnoea on admission11 (12.8%)6 (9.7%)4.869 (0.760–31.212)16× (0/1; no=0, yes=1)
Temperature on admission °C36.8 (36.5–37.2)36.8 (36.5–37.1)
Respiratory rate on admission19.0 (18.0–20.0)20.0 (19.0–20.0)
Lactate dehydrogenase U·L−1214.0 (187.8–275.8)201.5 (160.3–247.0)1.008 (1.001–1.014)0.07× per unit (U·L−1)
Procalcitonin ng·mL−10.04 (0.03–0.07)0.03 (0.02–0.05)
Lymphocyte count ×109 L−11.2 (0.9–1.6)1.3 (1.0–1.7)0.134 (0.038–0.471)−20× per unit (109 L−1)
White blood cells ×109 L−14.8 (3.7–6.1)4.7 (4.0–6.1)
Neutrophil count ×109 L−13.1 (2.2–4.1)3.0 (2.0–3.9)
Platelet count ×109 L−1159.3 (132.5–204.0)164.5 (120.3–210.4)
Haemoglobin concentration g·L−1138.5 (127.0–156.6)143.3 (130.0–152.8)
Arterial oxygen saturation %97.0 (95.3–98.8)96.0 (95.0–98.0)
Radiological abnormality
 GGOSS36 (41.9%)
 Pure ground-glass opacity32 (37.2%)
 Consolidation12 (14.0%)
 Other6 (7.0%)
Number of affected segments7.0 (2.3–12.0)
Lesion size
 <1 cm4 (4.7%)
 1–3 cm32 (37.2%)
 3 cm to 50% lobe45 (52.3%)
 >50% lobe5 (5.8%)
AI-based volume ratio of pneumonia
 −700 to 500 HU0.18 (0.11–0.27)
 −600 to 500 HU0.11 (0.07–0.17)
Treatment
 Corticosteroid agents55 (64.0%)19 (30.6%)
 Anti-infection agents85 (98.8%)52 (83.9%)
 Interferon agents34 (39.5%)7 (11.3%)
 Antiviral agents74 (86%)61 (98.4%)
 Gamma globulin agents54 (62.8%)21 (33.9%)

Data are presented as medians (interquartile ranges) and n (%). Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding. Variables in the validation cohort were not completely collected, as some of them did not appear in the model of the training cohort. GGOSS: ground-glass opacities overlapped with striped shadows; AI: artificial intelligence.