TABLE 1

Demography and pulmonary function characteristics of discharged patients with COVID-19

Total (n=110)Mild illness (n=24)Pneumonia (n=67)Severe Pneumonia (n=19)p value
Age, years49.1±14.046.8±15.647.9±13.756.5±11.0#,+0.04
Female55 (50.0%)13 (54.2%)36 (53.7%)6 (31.6%)0.21
Smoker13 (11.8%)4 (16.7%)7 (10.4%)2 (10.5%)0.707
BMI23.5±3.023.1±2.823.6±3.223.5±2.70.794
Duration (onset to discharge)27±920±629±834±7,+<0.001
Underlying disease44 (40.0%)10 (41.7%)25 (37.3%)9 (47.4%)0.719
 Lung disease3 (2.7%)0 (0%)3 (4.5%)0 (0%)1
 Heart disease3 (2.7%)1 (4.2%)2 (3.0%)0 (0%)1
 Hypertension26 (23.6%)6 (25.0%)15 (22.4%)5 (26.3%)0.924
 Cerebrovascular disease3 (2.7%)0 (0%)2 (3.0%)1 (5.3%)0.532
 Diabetes9 (8.2%)1 (4.2%)6 (9.0%)2 (10.5%)0.702
 Liver disease6 (5.5%)2 (8.3%)3 (4.5%)1 (5.3%)0.837
 Kidney disease2 (1.8%)1 (4.2%)1 (1.5%)0 (0%)0.631
 Solid tumor1 (0.9%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (5.3%)0.173
Oxygen saturation % on discharge98.7±1.098.6±1.298.7±1.098.5±1.00.73
Spirometry
 FVC%pred93.59±12.2594.06±10.4894.12±12.3191.12±14.300.632
  <80% pred, No.(%)10 (9.09)3 (12.50)5 (7.46)2 (10.53)0.644
 FEV1%pred92.70±11.5794.26±11.0092.59±11.8791.12±11.580.676
  <80% pred, No.(%)15 (13.64)4 (16.67)9 (13.43)2 (10.53)0.857
 FEV1/FVC%80.70±5.8181.84±5.4880.39±6.1280.19±5.150.509
  <70%, No.(%)5 (4.55)0 (0)5 (7.46)0 (0)0.349
 MMEF%pred97.40±26.2399.77±28.1796.59±26.5196.14±23.820.879
  <65% pred, No.(%)7 (6.42)1 (4.17)6 (9.09)0 (0)0.551
 FEF50%pred94.74±26.1197.47±25.4894.09±26.8093.53±25.560.845
  <65%pred, No.(%)12 (11.01)2 (8.33)8 (12.12)2 (10.53)1
 FEF75%pred96.10±32.56102.23±40.2095.02±30.8992.08±27.920.549
  <65%pred, No.(%)12 (11.01)3 (12.50)4(6.06)5 (26.32)+0.035
Diffusion capacity
 DLCO%pred78.18±14.2984.70±13.8879.76±11.9964.79±14.35,§<0.001
  <80%pred, No.(%)51 (47.22)7 (30.43)28 (42.42)16(84.21),§0.001
 DLCO/VA%pred92.09±16.6899.35±18.2592.30±15.7082.58±13.91,+0.004
  <80%pred, No.(%)29 (26.85)3 (13.04)18 (27.27)8 (42.11)0.09
Lung volume
 TLC%pred86.32±11.3287.13±10.4388.11±10.7279.16±12.13#,§0.008
  <80%pred, No.(%)27 (25.00)4 (17.39)14 (21.21)9 (47.37)#,+0.049
 RV%pred86.83±19.3787.17±16.8889.79±19.2176.16±19.96§0.024
  <65%pred, No.(%)10 (9.26)2 (8.70)3 (4.55)5 (26.32)+0.021
 RV/TLC%pred96.99±16.7298.00±14.9398.53±17.5590.42±14.860.168

Values are presented as No. (%), or mean±sd. Comparisons between continuous variables were performed with one-way ANOVA. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were applied to categorical variables as appropriate.

Abbreviation: FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in the first second; MMEF: maximal mid-expiratory flow. FEF50: forced expired flow at 50% of FVC; FEF75: forced expired flow at 75% of FVC; BMI: body mass index; DLCO: carbon monoxide diffusing-capacity; DLCO/VA: carbon monoxide diffusing-capacity corrected for alveolar volume; TLC: total lung capacity; RV: residual volume.

#p<0.05 versus Mild illness;

p<0.01 versus Mild illness;

+p<0.05 versus Pneumonia;

§p<0.01 versus Pneumonia.