Baseline characteristics of the patients included in the study

CharacteristicsAll patients
Subjects n445
Age years66.94±9.41
Male sex300 (67.41)
BMI kg·m−227.22±6.401
Current smoker156 (35.05)
Duration of COPD years7.77±1.55
Exacerbations in the previous year1.13±0.84
Any LABA351 (78.87)
Any LAMA292 (65.61)
Any inhaled glucocorticoids321 (72.13)
mMRC dyspnoea scale score#1.50±0.99
SGRQ total score37.48±17.89
CAT score+14.88±6.86
Post-bronchodilator FEV1 % pred54.66±16.87
Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC45.47±13.40
Post-bronchodilator TLC % pred112.78±20.52
Post-bronchodilator RV % pred151.37±48.94
Reversibility§28 (6.70)
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide ppm20.56±13.40
Atopy87 (23.45)
BODE total score2.51±2.03
Potential pathogenic bacteria in the sputum75 (16.85)

Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonists; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; SGRQ: St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; CAT: COPD Assessment Test; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; TLC: total lung capacity; RV: residual volume; BODE: body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise. #: score ranges from 0 to 4, with a score of 4 indicating that the patient is too breathless to leave the house or becomes breathless when dressing or undressing; : score ranges from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating worse health status and a minimum clinically important difference of 4 points; +: score ranges from 0 to 40, with higher scores denoting a more severe impact of COPD on a patient's life and a difference between stable and exacerbation patients of 5 units. No target score represents the best achievable outcome; §: defined as a change in FEV1 ≥12% and ≥200 mL when comparing pre- and post-bronchodilator values.