Summary of causes of tracheomalacia (TM), bronchomalacia (BM) and tracheobronchomalacia (TBM)

Primary or congenital
Congenital idiopathic
  Idiopathic TM/BM (may be genetic factors)
Congenital abnormalities of the cartilage
  Dyschondroplasia/chondromalacia/ achondroplasiaEhlers–Danlos syndromesMarfan syndrome
  Left bronchial isomerism with normal atrial arrangement
Congenital anomalies of the aerodigestive tract
  Oesophageal atresia (with or without laryngeal cleft)TOF
Anomalies of respiratory tract development
  PrematurityBronchopulmonary dysplasia
Congenital syndromes associated with TM/TBM
  Mucopolysaccharidosis (Hurler syndrome, Hunter syndrome)CHARGE syndromeVATER anomaly
  Trisomy 9Trisomy 21Cri du chat syndrome
  Smith's syndromeOpitz syndromeGoldenhaar syndrome
  Cotello's syndromeNeurofibromatosisAllagille's syndrome
  ArthrogryposisAtelosteogenesis type 118–22 translocation
  Antley–Bixler syndrome; 11p13 deletion; 16p13.3 deletion; 22q11 deletionPartial trisomy of long arms of chromosomes 11 and 22Larsen syndrome and Larsen-like syndromes
  Pfeiffer syndromeBlackfan–Diamond anaemiaWilliams–Campbell syndrome
  Kniest dysplasiaDiastrophic dysplasiaDiGeorge syndrome
  Deletion of 12qCariofaciocutaneous syndromeFryn's syndrome
  Brachmann–de Lange syndromeCamptomelic dysplasiaDe la Chapelle dysplasia
  Pierre Robin syndromeCrouzon syndromeNoonans syndrome
  Chitayat syndromeSpondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenitalSpondylocostal dysostosis
  Late-onset Pompe's diseaseLoeys–Dietz syndromeFilamin A mutation
  Osteogenesis imperfectHallermann–Streiff syndrome
Secondary or acquired
Cardiovascular anomalies associated with TM/BM
  Double aortic archDilated cardiomyopathyPulmonary arterial sling
  Right aortic archAberrant right subclavianEnlarged pulmonary veins
  Left atrial hypertrophyEnlarged left atriumSevere PAH
  Left to right shunting leading to enlarged pulmonary arteriesTetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndromeAbnormal take-off of the innominate artery
Skeletal anomalies associated with TM/BM
  ScoliosisPectus excavatum
Infections and inflammatory processes associated with TM/TBM
  Severe tracheobronchitisProtracted bacterial bronchitisStevens–Johnson syndrome
  Chronic suppurative lung disease, including cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, other causes of bronchiectasisRelapsing polychondritis
Tracheobronchial injury associated with TM/TBM
  Button battery ingestion injuryDelayed removal of inhaled foreign bodyTrauma
Medical procedures and surgery associated with TM/TBM
  Prolonged intubationTracheostomyTOF repair
  Laryngotracheal reconstructionTracheoplastyHeart transplant
  Fetal balloon insertion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Tumours and cysts associated with TM/TBM
  Primary tracheal tumourTeratomasThymoma
  GoitreLymphatic malformationLymphoma
  NeuroblastomaHaemangiomasBronchogenic cysts
  Enterogenous cystsCystic hygromas

CHARGE: coloboma, heart anomaly, choanal atresia, retardation, genital and ear anomalies; VATER: vertebrae, anus, trachea, oesophagus and renal; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; TOF: tracheo-oesophageal fistula.