TABLE 1

Studies included on CXR

DiseaseReferenceFirst authorAimSubjectsStudy designMain results
ARDS[2]Rubenfeld GDTo study the inter-observer variability in applying the American European radiographic criteria for ARDS28ProspectiveThe radiographic criteria showed high inter-observer variability
ARDS[3]Figueroa-Casas JBTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CXRs to detect pulmonary abnormalities in ARDS90RetrospectiveAccuracy of CXRs to detect pulmonary abnormalities was limited
ARDS[4]Frolich STo evaluate accuracy of clinical diagnoses of ARDS51RetrospectiveOnly one-third of ARDS was recognised on clinical records
ARDS[5]Peng J-MTo examine the effect of training material on the accuracy of CXR interpretations for ARDS diagnosis286 intensivistsProspectiveThe radiographic diagnostic accuracy and inter-rater agreement were poor and not improved by training
ARDS[6]Goddard SLTo test an educational intervention to improve the radiographic identification of ARDS464 intensivistsProspectiveRecognition of radiographic criteria for ARDS was low, with poor agreement
AHF[7]Halperin BDTo identify presence of excess lung water12ProspectiveCXRs were not accurate in monitoring modest changes in lung water in critically ill patients
AHF[8]Martin GSTo identify temporal changes in fluid balance37ProspectiveObjective radiographic measures of intravascular volume were more accurate than subjective measures
AHF[9]Thomason JWTo identify hydrostatic and permeability pulmonary oedema33ProspectiveObjective measurements of CT ratio and VPW correlated with pulmonary artery occlusion pressure
AHF[10]Farshidpanah STo identify hydrostatic and permeability pulmonary oedema80RetrospectiveObjective measurements of CT ratio and VPW correlated with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
Pneumonia[11]Lefcoe MSTo examine diagnostic accuracy of CXRs for pneumonia62ProspectiveCXRs were not accurate in predicting the presence of pneumonia
Pneumonia[12]Butler KLTo examine diagnostic accuracy of CXRs for pneumonia20ProspectiveCXRs did not improve the clinician's ability to diagnose pneumonia
Pneumonia[13]Moine PTo describe radiological features of severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia132ProspectiveCXRs were not accurate in detecting pneumonia aetiology
Pneumothorax[14]Schulman CITo determine optimal time for CXRs after chest tube positioning75ProspectiveEarly CXRs excluded the development of a clinically significant pneumothorax
Pneumothorax[15]Pizano LRTo determine optimal time for CXRs after chest tube removal75ProspectiveAfter 1 h from tube removal the CXRs identified all the pneumothoraces
Pleural effusion[16]Emamian SATo determine the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion by CXR24 measuresProspectiveDiagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion on supine CXRs was acceptable
Pleural effusion[17]Brixey AGTo determine the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion by CXR61RetrospectiveDiagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion was the same between lateral and anterior-posterior CXRs

ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; CXR: chest X-ray; AHF: acute heart failure; CT: chest computed tomography; VPW: vascular pedicle width.