TABLE 4

Studies included on PET

DiseaseReferenceFirst authorAimSubjectsStudy designMain results
ARDS[123]Kaplan JDTo measure pulmonary vascular permeability43ProspectiveARDS and pneumonia had higher PTCER
ARDS[124]Calandrino FSTo measure pulmonary vascular permeability27ProspectiveEarly versus late ARDS had higher PTCER
ARDS[125]Sandiford PTo measure regional distribution of vascular permeability8ObservationalNo difference in the distribution of PTCER
ARDS[126]Grecchi ETo investigate PET static and dynamic model analysis11ObservationalDynamic model better described lung inflammation
ARDS[127]Bellani GTo investigate inflammation distribution10ObservationalLung inflammation was diffusely distributed within the lung
ARDS[128]Bellani GTo assess gas volume changes and metabolic activity13ObservationalNo difference in lung inflammation between recruited–derecruited and collapsed regions
ARDS[129]Cressoni MTo determine size and location of lung inhomogeneity and inflammation20ObservationalDifferent regional distribution of inhomogeneity and inflammation
AHF[130]Schuster DPTo assess perfusion distribution21ObservationalSimilar pulmonary blood flow among the groups
Pneumonia[131]Chen DLTo investigate the relationship between lung inflammation and lung function27ObservationalPatients with cystic fibrosis had higher inflammation compared to healthy subjects
Pneumonia[132]Nusair STo assess possible use of PET in interstitial lung disease21ObservationalNo difference in tracer uptake between patients with different interstitial lung diseases
Pneumonia[133]Umeda YTo assess the degree of inflammation and disease progression50ObservationalPossible use in analysis of disease progression and response to therapy
COPD[134]Vidal Melo MFTo assess ventilation distribution in COPD12ObservationalHigh heterogeneity of ventilation distribution in COPD
Pleural effusion[135]Nakajima RTo discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusion79RetrospectiveGood accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant pleural effusion
Pleural effusion[136]Duysink BCTo discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusion36RetrospectiveGood accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant pleural effusion

PET: positron emission tomography; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; PTCER: pulmonary transcapillary escape rate; AHF: acute heart failure; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.